Sunday, March 22, 2020
Grendel A Philisophical Point Of View Grendel follows the philosophical evolution, from solipsism to nihilism, of a socially isolated creature, a monster. It is an examination of human supernatural curiosity and its many dangers, specifically the tendency toward blind cynicism. Grendel is a censure of the rapid growth of this cynicism in twentieth century society and the consequent widespread distrust of abstract ideals. In investigating his own nature, the monster in the story destroys himself. He realizes that the universe is determined, accidental, and so he loses faith in his own importance. With time, he becomes a beast, until eventually his soul has wholly left him. He does not die for love, or for passion, or for freedom. His spirit dies instead simply, hopelessly, mired in boredom and anger, without courage or sadness. Grendel is dead long before his body fails him. He fades away, and the most important theme in this novel is that such self-destruction, though tempting, is not the only answer. Grendel's first defense against a brute universe is solipsism: the belief that the self can know only itself and that it is the only existent thing. As the novel clearly demonstrates, solipsism is a weak defense. However loudly a creature may declare its godhood, the universe continues to function independently. However a creature may deny the reality of outside factors, outside factors will continue to impose themselves upon his everyday existence. The main flaw in solipsism is that it contradicts every aspect of human experience. Grendel is justifiably unsatisfied and nervous under its tenuous cover. After his visit to the dragon, Grendel finds a more solid shield, nihilism: the belief that nothing has meaning; that life is a long series of accidents and is in itself an accident. As a philosophy, nihilism is complete. It provides an answer to every metaphysical why?. Whatever the concern, a nihilist can conclusively state, There is no way to truly know, but it does not matter anyway. As a system of values for a living being, however, nihilism leaves much to be desired. It destroys the self, quickly and totally, with a single fall of a cynical whip. Grendel is utterly unhappy, because his life is empty and devoid of meaning. Notice that he projects this meaningless onto the thanes. He ridicules their actions and their passions, rendering them absurd in the reader's eyes. In truth, Grendel has a certain respect for human beings. He envies their capacity to dissolve into pure belief, and most of the hostility he exhibits toward them is actually derived from hostility toward himself. The human hero Beowulf represents an alternative to hopeless nihilism and cynicism, an alternative that Grendel never finds. Beowulf is the embodiment of regeneration and purity. Though Grendel thinks he is insane, Beowulf is the only level mind in the entire novel. Beowulf completes the philosophical journey that shapes this novel by providing a perfect answer to Grendel's puzzle. The meaning of life is in its living. The justification of truth is in truth. The reason for beauty is beauty. It is too late for Grendel, however, as he has lost too much of himself. In the final battle he rejects Beowulf and all that the hero represents, and so Grendel's death, like his life, is merely an accident. Book Reports
Thursday, March 5, 2020
What Is a Good ACT Aspire Score for a Sophomore SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Being in 10th grade is a little like walking over a bridge. You're crossing from the less consequential testing of early high school to the world of high-stakes tests, like the SAT andthe ACT Ã¢â¬â tests that can affect your future. One of the ways you get from one side of this metaphorical divide to the other is by getting the chance to practice. For example, some students take the PSAT, which is meant to be a precursor to the SATthat they will take in their junior or senior year. Others take the ACT Aspire, a national achievement test that assesses how well students from 3rd to 10th grade are measuring up toCommon Core standards. The format, structure, and scoring of the ACT Aspire are all very different from the ACT. But, because it is designed by the same organization that creates the ACT, it can feel like a precursor to the real thing. So whatÃ¢â¬â¢s a good score on the ACT Aspire for a sophomore? In this article, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll talk about different ways to think about what makes a good score, and how to tell where you rank based on the score you got. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll also discuss whether your 10th grade ACT Aspire score means for your future ACT score. How is the ACT Aspire Test Scored? Since the ACT Aspire is given in elementary, middle, and high schools, it stands to reason that scoring is a little different depending on your class year. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll talk specifically about how the test is scored for the 8th-10th graders who take it. ACT Aspire scores for each subject (English, Math, Reading, Science, and Writing) currently fall between 400 and 460. When you take this test in high school, here's what youÃ¢â¬â¢ll get in your score report: Your 5 individual section scores. These are your scores for each subject section of the test. A composite score. This is an unweighted average of your English, Mathematics, Reading and Science sections scores. Note that this composite score doesn't include your ACT Aspire Writing section, which is only scored individually. Several different kinds of reports about your progress. These include humanities and STEM composite scores, as well as a reading ability prognosis. If you'd like to see an example, the ACT publishes a sample of what your report will look like. The report may also include reports about the PSI pressure of your various organs. It's not really vital information, but you can't accuse them of not being thorough. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s a Good Sophomore Score on ACT Aspire? My assumption is that sophomore year, youÃ¢â¬â¢re curious about what a good score is for 2 reasons. First, youÃ¢â¬â¢re concerned abouthow you stack up against your peers. And second, youÃ¢â¬â¢re wondering how youÃ¢â¬â¢ll do when you take the ACT for real junior year. Luckily, ACT provides a pretty thorough data for the one year that this test has been administered. This makes comparing yourself to your peers and finding any academic areas where you are lagging behind very easy. However, this data also shows that the ACT Aspire is not necessarily a great prediction model for your future ACT scores. Now, letÃ¢â¬â¢s examine in detail what your ACT Aspire score can show you. Comparing Yourself to the Baseline One of the goals of the ACT Aspire is to give you, your teachers, and your parents a sense of whether you are as prepared for college as you should be at this point in high school. To answer this question, you can compare your ACT Aspire score to your scores from previous years, to make sure you are consistently getting higher scores in each subject. ACT Aspire also provides minimum benchmarks scores for each test section. Each benchmark is the lowest score you need to get to demonstrate that you are on the right track in terms of your on-grade-level learning. Here is a table that shows the ACT Aspire benchmark scores for each subject for the year 2015 for grades 8-10. This table shows that, for example, if you get at least 432 on the ACT Aspire Science section as a sophomore, youÃ¢â¬â¢re considered to be on track to have a high probability of future success in first-year college courses. On the other hand, if your score is below the 10th grade numbers on any of the test sections, then this means that you may need outside help to catch up in these academic areas. The important thing is to just keep growingevery year. (Image:Steven Depolo/Flickr) Comparing Yourself to Your Peers Another goal of national tests like the ACT Aspire is to examine how everyone who is taking the test at the same time compares to each other. Since ACT Aspire publishes data about how students taking the test scored, we can go through the data to see how you can tell where you stand when compared to your peers. Using Your Composite Score for Peer Comparisons The composite score that you receive from ACT is a very quick snapshot of how you did on the test. This average of your individual subject scores can give you fast information about how you did relative to your peers overall. One way to evaluate your composite score is to use this table of the composite scores for 9th and 10th graders in the past year: Grade Min 25% Rank 50% Rank 75% Rank 90% Rank 95% Rank Max 9 408 414 418 423 430 435 438 10 409 415 419 426 433 438 440 This table shows rangeof students'scores. The "Min" and "Max" columns show the lowest and highest composite scores. The percentile columns showthe score you'd need to reachthe given percentile, i.e. the score at which you'd be scoringhigher than that percent of other students. In other words, for 10th grade, the lowest composite score anyone got was 409. 25% of students scored below 415. This means that if your score was 415, you did better than 25% of the studentstaking the test. Likewise, 95% of students got below a 438. This means that if your composite score was 438 or higher, you fall into the top 5% of test takers (since you did better than 95% of everyone taking the test). So what do we learn from this table? If your composite score was 419, you would fall into the middle scoring range, the 50th percentile. This means that 50% of 10th graders did worse, and 49% did better, so everyone who scored 419 falls right in the middle. What does this mean for calculating a good ACT Aspire score for a sophomore? LetÃ¢â¬â¢s assume that a good score is roughly at or above the 75th percentile, in other words, scoring higher than 75% of your peers. In that case, a good composite score for the ACT Aspire for sophomores is 426 or higher. Many people climb, but not everyone can reach the top. Using Your Individual Test Sectionsfor Peer Comparisons The composite score is a useful way to eyeball your status. But to figure out where youÃ¢â¬â¢re strong and where you're weak academically, you need to look at the scores you got on individual test sections. This much more zoomed-in approach will give you a better clue about the subjects you are learning well and the ones you need to work on more. Now, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll go through each ACT Aspire test subject individually to see what a good score on it would be. ACT Aspire English Percentile Rankings Score % Rank Score % Rank Score % Rank Score % Rank 400 1 415 9 430 47 445 92 401 1 416 10 431 50 446 94 402 1 417 12 432 53 447 95 403 1 418 14 433 57 448 96 404 1 419 16 434 60 449 98 405 1 420 19 435 63 450 98 406 1 421 21 436 67 451 99 407 1 422 22 437 70 452 99 408 2 423 25 438 72 453 99 409 2 424 28 439 75 454 99 410 3 425 31 440 79 455 99 411 4 426 33 441 81 456 100 412 5 427 37 442 84 413 6 428 40 443 87 414 7 429 43 444 90 You can see that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to get all the questions right in order to fall into the top 1% of students. Although the exact number will change slightly from year to year, on this version of the ACT Aspire any sophomore who got 451 or above did better than 99% of the other test takers on the English section. The benchmark English section score of 428 would put you in the 40th percentile, which would mean you scored better than 40% of your peers. If we hang on to our assumption that a good score is around the 75th percentile, we can see that a score of 439 is what you need to reach that ranking. ACT Aspire Reading Percentile Rankings Score % Rank Score %Rank Score % Rank Score %Rank 400 1 411 10 422 47 433 92 401 1 412 13 423 51 434 95 402 1 413 14 424 52 435 98 403 1 414 17 425 57 436 98 404 1 415 21 426 62 437 99 405 1 416 24 427 66 438 99 406 1 417 28 428 72 439 99 407 2 418 31 429 77 440 99 408 3 419 35 430 82 441 99 409 4 420 39 431 83 442 100 410 6 421 43 432 87 You can see a similar thing about the Reading section results Ã¢â¬â quite a few of the top scores would put you in the top 1% of people taking the test. Also, notice how big a difference in the percentile rankings just one point makes. If you earned 424, you scored better than 52% of other sophomores, but if you got 425, you jump 5 percentage points to end up doing better than 57%. The Reading benchmark that ACT determined is 428, in the72nd percentile of test takers, which would also be a good score on this part of the test. ACT Aspire Math Percentile Rankings Score % Rank Score % Rank Score % Rank Score % Rank 400 1 416 15 432 72 448 99 401 1 417 19 433 75 449 99 402 1 418 23 434 79 450 99 403 1 419 26 435 82 451 99 404 1 420 30 436 85 452 99 405 1 421 32 437 87 453 99 406 1 422 36 438 89 454 99 407 1 423 40 439 91 455 99 408 1 424 44 440 93 456 99 409 2 425 48 441 95 457 100 410 2 426 51 442 97 458 100 411 4 427 54 443 98 459 100 412 6 428 58 444 99 460 100 413 6 429 61 445 99 414 9 430 65 446 99 415 12 431 68 447 99 The math section has a huge spread of scores that fall into the top percentile Ã¢â¬â anyone who scored above 445 did better than 99% of their peers. The ACT Aspire benchmark for this section is 432, or the 72nd percentile. Meanwhile, a good score in the 75th percentile is 433. ACT Aspire Science Percentile Rankings Score % Rank Score % Rank Score % Rank Score % Rank 400 1 413 7 426 50 439 94 401 1 414 9 427 53 440 95 402 1 415 14 428 57 441 97 403 1 416 15 429 61 442 98 404 1 417 19 430 66 443 99 405 1 418 21 431 69 444 99 406 1 419 25 432 73 445 99 407 1 420 29 433 76 446 99 408 2 421 34 434 79 447 99 409 2 422 38 435 83 448 99 410 4 423 39 436 86 449 100 411 4 424 42 437 88 412 6 425 46 438 91 The benchmark for ACT Aspire Science is 432, and this is basically the same as the good score weÃ¢â¬â¢ve been discussing, since it falls into the 73rd percentile of test takers. ACT Aspire Writing Percentile Rankings Score % Rank Score % Rank Score % Rank Score % Rank 408 1 419 20 430 66 441 98 409 1 420 24 431 66 442 99 410 4 421 24 432 81 443 99 411 4 422 27 433 81 444 99 412 6 423 27 434 90 445 99 413 6 424 37 435 90 446 99 414 7 425 37 436 92 447 99 415 7 426 55 437 92 448 100 416 10 427 55 438 94 417 10 428 61 439 94 418 20 429 61 440 98 You can immediately see how differently the Writing section is scored from this table. First of all, the lowest score on this section isnÃ¢â¬â¢t 400 like it is for all the other sections, but 408. Also, pairs of scores get the same percentile ranking, so for example, both 410 and 411 correlate to doing better than 4% of other sophomores. Here, the benchmark score from ACT is 428, or better than 61% of everyone taking the test at the same time. Meanwhile, a good 10th grade score on Writing is somewhere between 430 and 433, which falls between the 66th and 81st percentiles. Predicting Future Success Now that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen how your score compares to the scores of all the 10th-graders who took the ACT Aspire last year, youÃ¢â¬â¢re probably itching to figure out whether your score on ACT Aspire means anything for the real ACT that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll take in your junior year. The truth is thatACT Aspire is not a particularly great predictor of your future accomplishments, though it does give you a very general sense of what you can hope to achieve. But this is fantastic news! It means that the ACT Aspire really does what itÃ¢â¬â¢s supposed to do Ã¢â¬â it shows you where you are now and where you need to improve. And the other great news is that dramatic improvement is clearly possible because as a sophomore, you have 1 or even 2 years in which to do it! Ok, but will the next one tell me my future ACT score? The Relationship Between ACT Aspire and ACT Scores ACT published data on 50 10th grade students Ã¢â¬â their scores oneach ACT Aspire section, and their scores on theactual ACT when they took it in 11th grade. The problem is that this data is just an unwieldy Excel spreadsheet (you can check it out here:Demonstrating the Student Growth Percentile model for grade 10 ACT Aspire to grade 11 ACT) I used the data to create some scatterplot graphs to show the whatstudents got on each ACT Aspire section and what they ended up getting on the same ACT section. The way each graph works is this: Each blue diamond point stands for one student Ifyou trace straight down from each point, you can see what that student got on ACT Aspire (in this case the Math section) If you trace straight left, you can see what that same student got when taking the ACT for real So what this graph is showing us that in general as scores from ACT Aspire Math increase (x-axis), the scores on ACT Math also tend to get somewhat higher as a group (y-axis). In other words, the swarm of diamonds goes slightly upward as we go from left to right. On a case-by-case basis, we can see that there is significant room to grow, no matter where in the score range students fall. For example, the 3 students who got432 on ACT Aspire Math (our good, 72nd percentilescore), ranged in ACT scores from 16 (approximately in the bottom 25%) to 26 (approximately in the top 15%). In the graph of English scores, we can see that your ACT Aspire score is by no means destiny. For example, look at all the students who ended up with goodACT English scores in the mid-20s. Their ACT Aspire scores ranged from 425 (below benchmark) to 447 (well above the good 75% score of 439). This same general trend of higher ACT Aspire scores leading to higher ACT scores continues when we look at the scatterplot graph for the Reading section. But the relationship is not exact. For example, the two highest scorers on the Aspire Reading section were not the top ACT scorers. Similarly, the person who scored lowest on the ACT did not get the bottom score on the Aspire. The Science section of ACT Aspire probably shows a slightly weaker correlation between high 10th grade ACT Aspire scores and subsequent high 11th grade ACT scores. Incidentally, if youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been following along with the visual data presentation in this articleÃ¢â¬â¢s tables, charts, and graphs, then youÃ¢â¬â¢re actually getting in somegood practice for both the ACT Aspire Science section and the real ACT Science section as well! Now that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen how scatterplot graphs that show correlations look, you can be just as befuddled as I am by what happened to these 50 students on the writing section of these 2 tests. This kind of data may be a part of the reason why ACT Aspire Writing is not factored into the composite score that you get when you take the test in high school. What Does This Mean for What'sa Good Score? I think the best way to think about your scores if youÃ¢â¬â¢re worried about what they will eventually for the real ACT is this. First, make sure youÃ¢â¬â¢re scoring at least at the 10th grade benchmarks. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s a pretty good indicator that youÃ¢â¬â¢re on trackwith your learning. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re below benchmark on any of the sections, that is a warning sign that you need help in that subject, not just to do better on ACT Aspire test but to succeed in your school year as well. Next, compareyour ACT Aspire section scores to each other. Are you scoring in the same percentile range on all 5 subjects? If there is a section (or several) that you are scoring significantly worse in, even if youÃ¢â¬â¢re still meeting the benchmark in that area, then this is the time to get extra help with this subject. Talk to your parents and teachers about what resources to improve your learning there are at your school, or maybe even outside of it. Should You Study for the ACT Aspire? For any test to accurately assess what you know and how well you understand when and where to apply that knowledge, the test can't simplythrow you off by its format, question style, or by the way it's administered. So in order for the ACT Aspire to actually measure how you are doing in school, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a great idea for you to familiarize yourself with how the test looks and feels.To that end, you should definitely read ourdetailed breakdown of what the ACT Aspire is like and the kinds of questions youÃ¢â¬â¢ll face on it. You should also get a sense of what taking the ACT Aspire will be like from their sample questions and computer test simulator. Go to theACT Aspire exemplar page, where youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find a link to the simulator and login information for all test sections and grade levels. However, other than getting a general sense of what you will see on test today, I would argue that it goes against the purpose and the benefits of ACT Aspire to study specifically for it. For one thing, this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t like the PSAT Ã¢â¬â no scholarships or awards are resting on the score you get.Also, the point of the test is to see whether you are where you should be in your learning. Spending a lot of effort studying for this test would easily createresults that are meaningless as an indicator of whether you have academic weaknesses that need to be worked on. Finally, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s the matter of the rest of your class, and the rest of your grade in your school. The ACT Aspire isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just a diagnostic test for individual students. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also supposed to measure how each classroom is doing as a whole. Imagine, for example, that the ACT Aspire results come back and every single kid in your class bombed the Science section. This is no longer something that an individual student is having trouble with. Instead, this kind of result tells your teacher and school administrators that they really need to beef up how your curriculum addresses science education. And a better grounding in the foundations of science in turn will benefit you down the road when you learn how to do college-level work. Honestly, if you are really very worried about your future testing results, I think you should justtake a practice ACT instead. ItÃ¢â¬â¢ll more accurately show you how youÃ¢â¬â¢d score if you took the ACT now. The one time napping is a better way to prepare for a test thanstudying. The Bottom Line The ACT Aspire tests the same 5 sections as the ACT, but is structured, formatted, and scored very differently. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll get scores for each of the sections individually, as well as a composite score that averages English, Reading, Math, and Science. If you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t meeting ACT score benchmarks, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a serious indicator that you need extra academic help. A good 10th grade ACT Aspire score is one that puts you in the upper 25% of your peers, and is different depending on each ACT Aspire test section. Even if you got a good 10th grade ACT Aspire score, this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily mean anything in terms of predicting your real ACT score.ACT Aspire is not very good at predicting the ACT because its real purpose is to show you subject areas where you need extra help. There is no need to study for the ACT Aspire, though it would be a good idea to get familiar with the test format by checking out somesample questions. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? Thinking of jumping into the ACT world early? We have some guidance on whether you should start preparing for the ACT as a 10th grader andwhat a good sophomore ACT score would look like. Thinking about taking the PSAT as a 10th grader as well? Check out our discussion onwhat is a good PSAT score for a sophomore. Planning the rest of your high school academics? Read our articles aboutwhy itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to create a rigorous course load for yourself andwhether AP classes are really worth taking. Want to improve your ACT score by 4+ points? Download our free guide to the top 5 strategies you need in your prep to improve your ACT score dramatically.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
American History of 1870-1945's - Term Paper Example This paper focuses on achievements and political activities of both these persons as presidents of America. Emergence of America Ever since America found its place in world map, it underwent through a total of seven stages and is presently undergoing the eighth. The time from 1912 to 1929 is referred to as Ã¢â¬ËMelting- pot AmericaÃ¢â¬ . This period was preceded by an Industrial America (1870- 1912) and was immediately followed by America emerging as a superpower at the global level (1929- 1960). Melting pot America had certain distinctive features or characteristics. During this time America experienced some major changes in social and political field. Immigrants from across the world flooded into different American provinces. They not only brought their distinctive cultures with them and merged them with American culture, but at the same they also reinforced a reversal of political practices. It was during this time that AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s political and economic potentials were r ecognized, thereby making America play an important role during First World War. Another feature of Melting pot period is Ã¢â¬ËRoaring TwentiesÃ¢â¬â¢. All these made America urbanized and a fast paced destination from global point of view (Chhokar et al, 191-194). Both Woodrow Wilson as well as Theodore Roosevelt played significant roles in turning America into a superpower. Convention Politics and Theodore Roosevelt Teddy Roosevelt was a Republican who succeeded William McKinley. Strategically, Roosevelt was the first to introduce a dynamic relation between the contradictory ideals of Conservatism and Liberalism. He was of the view that, approaches mush be made softy but, to be made tougher when the work is not delivered timely or some corruption creeps in. thus, Roosevelt displayed a tough attitude to issues which were bothering America during first half of twentieth century, like crime and corruption within unions or workplaces, political mechanism and most importantly Ã¢â¬Ë anti- trust activities of monopoliesÃ¢â¬â¢. At the same time, Roosevelt believed in Ã¢â¬ËactivistÃ¢â¬â¢ approach in presidency. As far as Liberalism is concerned, Roosevelt took some remarkable steps. One of them is introduction of progressive income tax, which ensured higher returns for the State. In this regard, he played a huge role in broadening the prospects of executive power in political scenario of contemporary America (Johnson, 194). The party machinery was very much clear when Roosevelt appeared in Chicago during June of 1912, before the election. At the time of his arrival, the entire political control was in the hands of political bosses who refused to support the delegates of Roosevelt and instead supported Taft. However towards the end, Roosevelt was finally able to make most delegates of Taft desert him. The Republicans choose to follow Roosevelt, thus expressing discontentment on the proposal of Republican- moderates of compromise. This counter- convention led to the formation of Ã¢â¬ËProgressive PartyÃ¢â¬â¢ or Bull Moose Party with Teddy Roosevelt as its president, and a pre-panned convention set for August that year. There was a clash of interests with the Democrats during this time as the Democrats chose to select Woodrow Wilson, then a reformist governor of New Jersey as their candidate for the electoral poll. As president, Roosevelt stressed upon the doctrine of Ã¢â¬Ëtwo- party systemÃ¢â¬â¢, i.e. incorporating political ideologies of both Democrats and the Republicans, and eradication of
Monday, February 3, 2020
Influence of Social Networking Sites on Relationships - Essay Example The essay "Influence of Social Networking Sites on Relationships" discusses the influence of social networking sites on relationships. A social networking site is a form of media of the digital age that helps people in the development of communities and networks. Some of the most popular examples include Facebook, Twitter, and Orkut. The system of kinship includes people who have close relationships with each other or those who are living as a unit or family. We create our own definition of family. We can decide to add and not add people depending on whether we trust them or consider them family. In this way, we actually go beyond defining kinship as just blood relationships and add such relationships to the definition that leaves a great impact on our lives. Some people believe that close relationships fall into the definition of kinship whereas some people believe that only a blood relationship is real kinship. Today, anthropology is heading towards forming new forms of kinship. Fo r example, we can find many people on Facebook who have their close friends or childhood friends as their sisters and brothers. On the other hand, many people present on Facebook have blood relationships between each other. Social networking sites, such as Facebook, also helps people in the formation of imagined communities and networks. People can form such communities where there are no boundaries, no nation states, but a place where they can find people with whom they feel good. Facebook has made people less individualistic.
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Singapore Zoo Marketing Strategies The new event of process scheduled in the recent era is the launch of e-Business. This process is basically an additional method for the growth of productivity and an increase in the zone of profit for the business that is involved. The key structure of the e-Business is the active utility of the computers and online transactions. This also involves various strategies to complete the process and handle the structure with core techniques for the best result. The acquired process of marketing and management in the recent years have grown and taken its place with latest techniques and new acronyms in the global touch. E-Business is the new integration of the activities of the organisation or the company and their products along with their services and procedures in the internet. A old traditional business linked with the new growth of enables e-Business strategy integrating the activities of the organisation or the company featuring sales, accounting, marketing and many more operations that are concerned with the organization and their process involved takes us to the pride of achieving the future growth and their expansion. Outline Segment: This assignment includes the necessary of identifying the principles of marketing and a complete analysis of the structure of e-business in to the chosen illustration. The time to time market explains the product launch and their association with the market for the release. It redirects the right time for the consideration of launch of the project or practice in accordance with the implementation changes that has to take place within the organisation as a matter of fact. Branding: The process of branding shall be concerned as the part of sources provided in the internet and other resources about the brand and by the tasks of business of participation. The web page normally supplies the relevant scope of information about the brand and the organisation with its benefits and service provided on the real. A website establishes the fact of the company or the organization and creates awareness about the offers and availability of the schemes provided by the company. It also brings the latest key on notice to the immediate reach of the customers and creates a satisfaction among the customers. The process of branding not only has an impact on the customers but also enriches the source of customers with a build of trust and raises itself with a value of accreditation in the market of competition. The brand becomes a part of the quality and promise of the customers and the partners along with the employees as a part of flexibility, trust and growth. Singapore Zoo: The Singapore Zoo, Located at 80 Mandai Lake Road, is also known as Mandai Zoo or Singapore Zoological Garden. Popular for its Night Safari attraction, the Zoo has a reaped a long list of awards, both local and international. This has to be the one of the really beautiful zoos, of which there are all too few. It is brilliant laid out, so that the ceclosure fences are almost totally hidden. The expanses of the water of the seletar reservoir are a magnificent additional feature of the setting. The animals are beautifully maintained in good health, in spite of the climatic conditions. All in all, the Zoo shall receive a warn congratulation for the heads that are responsible for them, and declaring it for us was a great experience to see it. The gem of an idea to have a zoo was conceived by Dr. Ong Swee Law. Opened on 27 June 1973, the Singapore Zoological gardens caters to recreational, educational and social needs of Singaporeans and tourist to the republic. The Open Zoo which reflects the absence of physical barriers in enclosure design. Instead cascading waters, lush vegetation and moats cleverly mask the hidden barriers to enhance the illusion of freedom and natural jungle-like atmosphere for the animals. The Zoo began with the humble collection of 270 animals of about 72 species. To date, a total of over 2000 animals of 240 species are displayed in some 70 exhibits. One of the more appealing attractions at the zoo is the animal show. The animal shows Primate Reptile show s and Elephant and Sea-lion shows. Due to popularity and surge in crowds, an Amphitheatre was built in 1985 to centralize these shows and to seat visitors comfortably. The amphitheatre which has a long pool with glass panels for aquatic acts can seat 1,500 and can accommodate up to 2,000 spectators. The Animal Shows are specially designed to incorporate the natural behaviours of the animals to educate visitors in an entertaining presentation. The conservation messages are disseminated to the audience during the shows to heighten their awareness of the environment. In 1987, the Zoo introduced the Special loan exhibit, where rare animals on loan from other Zoos are displayed for a short period. The animals which have been displayed at the special Loan Exhibit include the golden monkeys, white tigers and giant pandas. This novel idea gives visitor s an opportunity to view rare animals which cannot be exhibited permanently at the zoo. The enclosure was renamed Singaporean Press Holdings (SPH) enclosure following its adoption by the SPH group in 1990. Another major breakthrough for the Zoo was the introduction of underwater viewing exhibits. The first was in 1988 the underwater viewing polar bear exhibit enable visitors to rub noses with the Zoos polar bear. Since 1987, the Zoo pas sed the million marks in visitor attendance. The string of awards bagged by the Singapore Zoo attests to splendid inhabitants and services: 2002 Asean Tourism Association (ASEANTA) Awards for Excellence, Best New attraction in ASEAN (Singapore Zoo for Hamadryas Baboons The great rift valley of Ethiopia). 2001: STB (Singapore Tourism Board) Tourism Awards: Leisure Attraction of the Year 2001 (Singapore Zoo). 2001 The Singapore Totalisator Board Excellence Singapore Award: Internationally acclaimed open zoo design and excellent in-situ conservation achievement. 2000: Where Singapore magazines Concierge Choice Awards: Best Place to Take the Kids. 1999: IMA (Incentive Meeting Asia) Awards: Best Theme Attraction. Important Campaigns in the process of integration of the organisation in e-Business are as follows; A new architecture of strategy and launch of business automation by the process of e-Business. An enhanced view and recommendation of the developed solution in the web and front-end legacy applications. A new format of the developed portals of the organization or the company with the update of the latest information. New value chain integrated through the web based application for the company or the organization. SWOT analysis: The SWOT analysis is an understanding of the total result of the current position of the business. It defines the Strength, weakness, opportunities and the threats of the organization matching the external opportunities with the internal strengths. The company or the organization involving for the SWOT analysis has to order the strategies and strengths to hold in control the weaknesses and eliminate the threats in any from the external sources. Strengths: They are open 365 days all around the year and it is considered as a most entertained tourist attraction. They open at 8:30 am in the morning and close at 6:00 pm in the evening creating an enthusiastic environment for all ages from 6 to 90 daily all around the year. The last ticket sale everyday is available at 5:30 pm enabling the visitors to enter at the event of closing for short time enjoyments too. The cost of the entry is also reasonable for the attractions available in the theme forest, the Singapore Zoo. Rental of the stroller is available enabling a hassle free travel until the Zoo and the charges are also reasonable as $9 only. Complimentary admission for DDR(Disability Development Registry) card holders and entitlement of beneficiary programmes chosen by the Voluntary Welfare associations. Protection and conservation comes with education. The visit enhances us to understand the necessary of conservation and protection raising awareness. Organising events such as wedding and parties for own reason with reasonable cost guaranteeing the success of the occasion conducted. Sponsorship and adoption also remains as a part of the team along with small donation initiating the success of protection and conservation of wildlife. The location suits the entry itself with a night safari and orchid gardens roaring itself with pride for visiting. Shows are unique and visiting Australian outback, cat country, critters Longhouse, Fragile forest, Elephants of Asia, Hamadryas Baboons, Orang Utan, Polar Bear, Proboscis Monkeys, Primate Kingdom, Rainforest Kidzworld, Reptile Kingdom, Wild Africa, White tiger are the main attractions. Weaknesses: Weather: The weather circumstance may be the stop point, as prediction is never accurately right hence the market prediction refers accordingly. Cost: This cost may sound reasonable when considering the factors of the total value and convenience referred in the place. Place: The location depends convenient on consideration upon the general factors but the unique thoughts upon the each visitor vary. Shows: Visitors though they are happy with the shows and preferences that are given or organised by the organisation but they prefer to have more shows. Opportunities: The Singapore Zoo is said to be an organised theme with shows, events and attractions. They tend to have increased in their growth along with the years. Now they have become a part of the wildlife protection and conservation creating awareness in the social media. There are quite a lot of opportunities and competition that exist in the field in and around the world. Threats: There are no huge threats when concerned with the whole of the organisation whereas some exist such as the competition between the other themes around the area. There exist another night safari and orchid gardens for visiting. The location Singapore itself refers itself for a calm and roaring entertaining area. The visitor can become a sponsor or a member, he can involve himself as a part of the team enriching the lives of animals the wonder and an escape for the reality in admiration. They are the sources of a living entertainment and they have to be preserved. Marketing mix: The most important elements of marketing are defined as the 4 Ps. They are Product, promotion, price and place. An organization may change the elements of marketing according to their requirements and tendencies. The target for their own caste in the market is set with official designation with the alteration of the principles of marketing mix if required and are taken in to consideration for the fact of earning their benefits in the resource implemented. The main component to be considered is the addressing of the competitive market and the implementation and the process of support by the operations merged to prove the reach of the target through the marketing mix principles. Taking the marketing mix in this instance for this organisation comprises of the products, place, promotion and distribution. The products offered are the actual offering that is present in the location and the price is the value that remains exchanged for the offering present in the place. The promotion includes the targeting of the audience with the mix of promotions for the attraction of visitors. Distribution covers the place where the product is being offered and located for the targeting of the audience. Place: The location is been chosen as the best suited place for the construction of the Zoo and its the perfect place for the process chosen by the organization. The organization built has various ideas such as scheduling events and wedding ideas indoor or outdoor events. They also categorize themselves in organising the events and catering and all sources for the booked events. The location sets scenic view and way for the other places of attraction such as the night safari and orchid gardens that cover the tourist spots. The major point discovers the area as a whole of tourist attraction and determines itself with a variety of attraction such as night safaris and gardens on way to the Rainforest zoo. They also become a part of other organisations such as the zoos and wildlife conservation within the country. The animal encounters and rides, feeding times, animal photography, zoo shop plays an important role in the pride of being unique among the other attractions. Price: The cost of the entry is effective when considered the shows and features of the Zoo. The price is $20 per adult and $13 for the Child aged within 6-12. Students concession and group allowances are available when booked as a whole and has to be contacted the organization. They have some plans for the disabled and authorised visitors allowing a free entry for the DDR card holders. Product: The zoo comprises of various shows in exhibiting the wildlife of the organisation and other specific animals such as White tiger, fragile forest, wild Africa, Elephants of Asia, cat country, Orang Utan, Reptile Garden, Polar bear, Proboscis Monkeys, Rainforest Kidzworld, Primate Kingdom, Hamadryas Baboons, Critters Longhouse, Australian outback. It is also considered as the finest zoo in Asia and ranks top among the beautiful zoo of the world too. The animals adopt an open concept of living in the landscape and spread across the vivid and spacious environment separated for the curious spectators with wet and dry moats. The shows are of varieties and the spark for enthusiasm lie in high potential for customers to return often in visiting the zoo. It is considered to be the worlds first zoo with night wild life park on may 26th 1994. It covers the second place for the dense forest divided among the east and west loops. An extraordinary experience with the nocturnal species of more than one thousand animals within a count of 100 species toggled in the technique of soft light of visibility. The night safari is said to the wholesome and popular entertainment in the night attracting almost all the visitors of tourist attractions present in the city. Over the past decade it has not let itself one percent down with the novelty. It has loaded itself with four awards in the recent past including the local and international being a part of the IFEA Pinnacle award of the 2001 with a present title as the Gold winner. The Night safari process is also famous for its Gourmet safari Express. Promotion: The promotions of the organisation comprises of the animal photography, guided tours, Animal encounters and rides, feeding times, foods and beverages, shops in zoo, friendly facilities for the disabled and shows organised according to the periods of season. Education and conservation are part of the promotional scheme for the visitors to get involved with the social space. The childrens world was created in the year of 1973 consisting of the play land and the animal land. The famous miniature train ride that connects the lands together and the animals are placed in such a manner that they exist in their natural habitat unlike the artificial influence and stimulation. The animal land in entitled for the childrens to play and with a real life experience as the domestic animals participate in the play. The domestic animals include the chickens, rabbits and sheep. The play land is efficiently placed with conventional equipments used for play enhancing the space of life. The childrens world has been voted the best location for the kids in the magazine Where Singapore inaugural concierge choice 1999 awards. This is the first world wide entertainment promotion among the other specimens in the same category all around the world to introduce the varieties of elements such as the underwater exhibits an opportunity to view the rare animals within the short span of time as the zoo is just 37 years old. The zoo is amphitheatre centralised that was built in the year 1985 and now it has reached the heights of audience including the primate, reptile and elephant shows starting in the 1970s and helping the launch of amphitheatre with more than 1500 to 2000 seats of accommodation. Awards: The awards have been contributed for the specialised services and splendid inhabitants of the zoo. The Zoo initially started with 270 animals of about 72 species and has grown to an extent of 2000 animals contributing from the 240 species displayed in almost 70 exhibits. The awards are both local and international as listed below; 1999 Best theme Attraction- IMA (Intensive and meetings Asia Awards) 2000 Concierge choice awards Where Singapore Magazine Best place for kids 2001 Leisure attraction of the year Singapore Totalisator Board of Excellence for Singapore award 2001 Singapore tourism Board (STB) Leisure attraction the year 2001. 2002 ASEANTA Asean Tourism Association Awards for excellence: Best New Attraction. Experiences: The various attractions that are found in the organisation is said to be dimensional and are the best experience in ones life after the visit. The new vision of administering and maintaining the species of living example and their conservation is the most important feature. The visitors all over the world have always been satisfied and this organisation has taken the pride of providing more than the cost involved per person for the entertainment. The events organised consist of vivid ceremonies personalised according to the booking made by the individual and general events such as wedding and celebrations of specific occasions are organised in such a way that they are most remembered and considered the best in the minds of celebrated individual family. The vast number of crowds and selection of shows organised in the zoo according with the seasons play an important role for the visit of various visitors and audiences. Marketing Controls: Market research, customer surveys, participation, sponsorship, attendance with on-field success is considered to be the main controls of marketing generally. The e-business plays an important role in the marketing roles for this organisation. The website is specially designed to contribute al the efficiency and entertainment lively probing the customer to participate in the visit. The design of the website enhances the quality and governance of contribution in a specialized way. It also shows complete data of the zoo and further to the facts present it also allots a chance for the participation of the visitor along with the excitement offers. Conclusion: The overall consideration and the above report show the complete focus of the organisation. The report after the examination from the history until the latest score of the organisation considering the facts along with the advantages and disadvantages conclude that they are listed in the top ranking for the attractions world-wide. This result shows the specific activity and growth of their marketing through a new median of e-Business launching their complete attractions and consideration with a virtual view over the available charts of the organisation. The marketing strategies that actively participate in the role of increasing their growth from the past decades have contributed much to their heights of enhancement. Hence the process of growth has taken an important ride in the marketing strategy and mix along with core key of E-Business.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
1. The Ã¢â¬Å"building blocksÃ¢â¬ of polysaccharides are _______, and the blocks are covalently linked together by _______. A. | glycerol and fatty acids; glycosidic linkages| B. | amino acids; triple bonds| C. | monosaccharides; glycosidic linkages| D. | disaccharides; triple bonds| E. | oligosaccharides; glycosidic linkages| Answer choice C Which of the following statements about starch is false? A. | Starch may be partially branched. | B. | Starch is a polymer of glucose. | C. | Starch is formed by the condensation of monomers. | D. The properties of starch are very similar to those of cellulose. | E. | Starch may be digested by people. | Answer choice E Which of the following characteristics distinguishes carbohydrates from other macromolecule types? A. | Carbohydrates are constructed of monomers that always have a ring structure. | B. | Carbohydrates never contain nitrogen. | C. | Carbohydrates consist of a carbon bonded to hydrogen and a hydroxyl group. | D. | Carbohydrates contain glycerol. | E. | None of the above| Answer choice A 1. A five-carbon sugar is known as a A. glutamine. | B. | glucose. | C. | hexose. | D. | pentose. | E. | None of the above| Answer choice D Oils and fats A. | form membranes. | B. | are triglycerides. | C. | all contain the same fatty acids. | D. | are good for you in large amounts. | E. | have glycosidic linkages. | Answer choice B Oils melt at a lower temperature than fats because A. | oils and fats are not the same type of macromolecule. | B. | fats contain more saturated fatty acids than oils. | C. | fats contain are unsaturated fatty acids than oils. | D. | oils are made by plants. | E. fats are common in animals. | Answer Choice C Fatty acids are A. | carboxylic acids with long hydrocarbon tails. | B. | linked to glycerol in fats by hydrogen bonds. | C. | always saturated. | D. | large polymers of monosaccharides. | E. | water soluble. | Answer choice A A phospholipid differs from a triglyceride in that phospholipids A. | are amphipathic. | B. | are not derivatives of glycerol. | C. | do not have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts. | D. | are used to store energy for the cell. | E. | do not contain fatty acids. | Answer choice B
Friday, January 10, 2020
AbstractionSuicide is a major cause of mortality worldwide. It is a human calamity that accounts for an estimated one million deceases yearly. This translates to at least one decease ensuing from self-destruction every 40 seconds. The magnitude of the job is farther compounded by the fact that the incidence of attempted self-destruction is about 25 times more than that of completed self-destruction. Every act of suicide impacts on at least six other persons. Suicide rates have increased by approximately 60 % over the last 45 old ages, therefore representing a major public wellness load. These rates are grossly underreported globally and many developing states, including Nigeria, do non hold meaningful records of deceases and their causes. There is dearth of information as respects the incidence of self-destruction and self-destructive behavior in Nigeria, with the exclusion of a few recent surveies. A systematic online reappraisal of published literature on self-destruction and self- destructive behavior in Nigeria was conducted and relevant articles reviewed. This article chronicles the development of research on self-destruction and self-destructive behavior in Nigeria, from isolated studies in the 1960s to more recent, large-scale epidemiological studies in the last decennary. It farther high spots the demand for an efficient system of wellness records with efficient certification of deceases and their causes, and a alteration in the state Ã¢â¬Ës statute law with regard to suicide and suicidal behaviors.WritersDr. J. O. AbdulmalikConsultant Psychiatrist, Department of Psychiatry, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.Dr. O.O. Ayinde,Senior Registrar, Department of Psychiatry, University College Hospital, Ibadan.Alabi Omolabake OluwadamilolaConcluding Year Medical Student, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.Alabi Adeleke Ifeoluwa,Concluding Year Medical Student, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. All correspondence to: jfutprints @ yahoo.com, labek125 @ yahoo.comIntroductionMental, neurological and substance usage upsets make a significant part to the planetary load of disease ( GBD ) , which is estimated with the disability-adjusted life old ages ( DALY ) metric, assigned to each disease/disorder. The DALY is the amount of two composite steps: the old ages lived with disablement ( YLD ) and the old ages of life lost ( YLL ) due to a specified disease within the entire population. Suicide accounted for 1.8 % of the entire disease load as at 1998, but is projected to lift to 2.4 % by the twelvemonth 2020. [ 1 ] Mental and behavioral upsets are common, and will impact one in every four individuals at some clip during their lives. [ 2 ] The World Health Organization ( WHO ) defines suicide as Ã¢â¬Ëthe act of killing oneself, intentionally initiated and performed by the individual concerned in the full cognition or outlook of its fatal result Ã¢â¬Ë . [ 3 ] While several definitions exist, suicide merely means the knowing act of stoping one Ã¢â¬Ës ain life. Suicide is the 3rd prima cause of decease among immature people, aged 15 to 44 old ages, and ranks second for striplings between ages 15 and 19 old ages old. [ 4 ] These studies have prompted the WHO to go smartly involved in runing to convey the public wellness load and impact of self-destruction to the attending of authoritiess, policymakers and the populace through the bite and airing of statistics, and the development of preventative plans. It is estimated that globally, about one million deceases occur from self-destruction every twelvemonth ; which approximately translates to one self-destruction decease every 40 seconds. The incidence of attempted self-destruction is 25 times more common than completed self-destruction. It is besides the most of import cause of violent decease worldwide, accounting for 49 % of all instances. Other major subscribers to violent deceases worldwide include homicide ( 32 % ) ; with struggles and wars doing up the staying 19 % . It should be borne in head that the act of perpetrating self-destruction, is neither a disease nor a pathological status ; but mental upsets are often found to be associated with it, particularly depression. [ 5 ] Beyond numbering the Numberss of self-destruction and suicidal efforts nevertheless, is the frequently undiscovered psychological load from feelings of guilt, sorrow and torment, which is frequently experienced by the household members and close associates of persons who commit self-destruction. Every act of self-destruction, affects averagely six other people, at the really minimal. [ 5 ] This impact becomes amplified, when a self-destruction occurs in a public state of affairs, such as in a school or work environment. Non-fatal suicidal ideas and behaviors normally precede successful suicide Acts of the Apostless and should be seen as of import calls for aid and intercession, when they occur. They may be classified into three classs: Suicidal ideation, which refers to ideas of prosecuting in behaviour, aimed at stoping one Ã¢â¬Ës life. Suicidal program, which refers to the preparation of a specific method and readyings towards stoping his ain life. Suicidal effort, which refers to engagement in potentially self-injurious behavior with some grade of uttered purpose to decease.EtiologyThe undermentioned factors have been found to be associated with self-destruction. [ 6 ] Sociable: These include factors such as the absence of meaningful household ties or societal interactions which could ensue in egocentric self-destruction. Alienation or a interruption in the relationship between an person and the society due to societal or economic diverseness may ensue in alienated self-destruction ; while inordinate integrating and submergence into a given society may take to selfless self-destruction, supposedly for the greater good of that society. Psychological: This includes aggression and ill will turned inward against the ego, as stated by Sigmund Freud ; overpowering feelings of hopelessness as suggested by Aaron Beck ; and cognitive bottleneck of picks as observed by Edward Scheidman among persons with self-destructive inclinations. Biological: Self-destructive behaviors have been linked with lessened degrees of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the cardinal nervous system. Post mortem findings besides indicate low degrees of 5-hydroxytryptamine and some non-specific alterations in the noradrenergic system of self-destruction victims. Familial: Suicidal behaviours may run in households. A positive household history of self-destruction increases the hazard both for attempted and completed self-destruction. Medical: Chronic and enfeebling physical unwellnesss may increase the hazard for self-destruction. Mental upsets besides belong to this class and represent the most of import associated factors in self-destruction. Examples include depression ( associated with over 90 % of instances ) , intoxicant maltreatment, personality upsets, and schizophrenic disorder. Completed self-destruction is more common in males ; nevertheless suicide efforts and consider self-harm ( DSH ) are commoner among females and include Acts of the Apostless of toxic condition, cutting, and firing. Suicide is barely of all time the effect of a individual ground, but may instead result as a consequence of a multiple factors moving in concert to convey about such an act. These hazard factors have been classified into single, socio-cultural and situational factors, as depicted in Table 1. [ 1 ] Table 1: Hazard factors for suicidea?Ã °IndividualSocio-culturalSituationalMental upset Stigmatization of health-seeking behaviour Fiscal troubles Alcohol or drug maltreatment Lack of entree to healthcare services, including mental wellness Social losingss and dislocation of important emotional relationships Hopelessness Cultural and spiritual beliefs lauding self-destruction as a baronial mercantile establishment in the face of personal troubles Ready entree to lethal agencies Previous self-destruction effort Exposure to suicidal behaviours, through the media and the influence of others who have died by self-destruction Nerve-racking life events Isolation and deficiency of societal support Aggressive inclinations Impulsivity History of injury or maltreatment Acute emotional hurt Major physical or chronic unwellnesss Family history of self-destruction a?Ã °Modified from the WHO publication, Ã¢â¬Å" Public wellness action for the bar of self-destruction: a model, WHO ; 2012 Ã¢â¬ .GLOBAL SITUATION AND TRENDSSuicide rates have increased by 60 % worldwide, in the last 45 old ages, with an estimated planetary incidence rate of 16 per 100,000. [ 7 ] This tendency is happening despite the betterments in the acknowledgment and direction of depression and other mental upsets, and the increased handiness of newer medicines with better and more tolerable side effects. The incidence of self-destruction is normally reported as a rate per 100,000 on a state footing. States such as Sri Lanka, Lithuania, Russia and Belarus which record 30 or more deceases per 100,000 are classified as high rate states. States with Numberss runing from 10 to 29 per 100,000 such as Japan, Hungary, and China have in-between rates ; while those states with fewer than 10 suicide deceases per 100,000 ( e.g. Syria, Jamaica, Egypt ) are classified as low rate states. [ 7 ] However, these rates may really be misdirecting as they do non convey the true extent of the job. For illustration, China has a suicide rate of about 25/100,000, which places it in the in-between scope but it accounts for the largest figure of human deceases from self-destruction yearly, with 287,000 reported suicide deceases ; therefore accounting for about a 3rd of the planetary mortality from self-destruction in a twelvemonth. [ 8 ] Similarly, India Ã¢â¬Ës rate of 10/100,000 topographic points it marginally in front of states with low rates, but India is 2nd to China in the figure of suicide deceases recorded per twelvemonth, with reported figures of about 110,000 suicide deceases. [ 9 ] Khan, illustrated the deceptive nature of trusting wholly on these rates, without seting them in the larger context of the state Ã¢â¬Ës population. He utilized comparative analysis utilizing the available figures, and showed that four states with high self-destruction rates: Lithuania, Russia, Estonia and Latvia have a combined entire figure of suicide deceases that is less than the entire figure of suicide deceases from India entirely, which is hardly above a low rate state. [ 10 ] Unfortunately, similar country-wide informations is non uniformly available across the Earth. Indeed, several states, including Nigeria, do non routinely cod decease records and have no describing systems to document the causes of decease. These non-reporting states exceed 50, and include states with populations totaling over 100 million people such as Indonesia, Pakistan and Bangladesh. [ 11 ] There is a dearth of research on self-destruction from developing states. Very small is known about self-destructions in many African states, including Nigeria. [ 12 ] Mental unwellness is seldom mentioned or is implicated in merely a little figure of self-destructions. The bulk of available studies in developing states are based on hospital necropsy studies or constabularies informations, neither of which would normally document psychological factors involved in self-destructions. Suicide is no longer a condemnable offense in any developed state but continues to be criminalized in many developing states, including Nigeria. Religious and societal factors besides continue to act upon the diagnosing and registering of self-destructions. Families do non unwrap the true nature of the act, for fright of torment by constabulary and the attendant societal stigma that would accrue from such revelations. Alternatively they are more likely to declare the decease an accident or in some instances, a homicide. [ 13 ]THE NIGERIAN CONTEXTThere is dearth of information about the epidemiology of self-destruction in Nigeria. Suicides are by and large reported to be rare in less developed states. This is partially attributable to the routinely hapless records of decease and its causes. In a survey that evaluated medical examiners Ã¢â¬Ë studies over a four-year period ( 1957-60 ) in the Western Region ( now broken down into several provinces ) of Nigeria, Asuni concluded that the self-destruction rate in Western Nigeria was really low. He reported higher rates of self-destruction in the rural countries compared to urban parts. [ 14 ] Some of import hospital-based surveies have besides provided utile penetration into this job. A reappraisal of reported instances of attempted self-destruction from the three largest infirmaries in Benin City ( Specialist, Uselu Psychiatric Hospital and the University Teaching Hospital ) indicated that the incidence had non increased over the four-year period crossing 1978 to 1981, during which the norm petroleum suicide effort rate was 7 per 100,000. The commonest age group was among adolescents aged 15-19 old ages ( 39.4 % ) , while about nine out of 10 triers ( 87 % ) were aged 30 old ages and below. The most of import predisposing factors reported were mental unwellness ( 32 % ) and parental struggle ( 24 % ) . There was no important gender difference. [ 15 ] In a six-month prospective survey of 39 instances of deliberate ego injury reported in the three major infirmaries in Ibadan, Nigeria ; Odejide et al. , found that about eight in 10 ( 76.9 % ) were under the age of 30 old ages ; and merely over half ( 51.3 % ) were pupils, while 25.6 % were manual workers. The commonest methods used were consumption of chemicals and psychotropic drugs. [ 16 ] Nwosu and Odesanmi, in a survey carried out in the Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, that was based on medico-legal necropsy studies, reported the self-destruction rate as 0.4 per 100,000 populations, with about four times as many males perpetrating self-destruction when compared to females ( ratio of 3.6:1 ) . The bulk of the self-destructions were committed by the consumption of Gammalin 20 and usage of the local Dane gun. [ 17 ] Large-scale epidemiological surveies have been late conducted among grownups. A nationally representative epidemiological survey, covering 21 out of the 36 provinces in Nigeria was conducted by Gureje et al. , among 6752 grownups, to measure for self-destruction related results, and their association with mental upsets and a history of childhood hardship. They reported prevalence of self-destructive ideation, program and efforts were 3.2 % , 1 % and 0.7 % severally. The presence of mental upsets, particularly temper jobs significantly correlated with suicide results, while a history of early childhood hardship was identified as a hazard factor for life-time self-destruction effort. [ 18 ] Uwakwe and Gureje besides examined the relationship between comorbid mental and substance usage upsets with self-destructive behaviors in the Nigerian study of mental wellness and wellbeing. They found that individuals with lifetime self-destruction efforts were more likely than those without efforts to hold experienced lifetime DSM-IV upsets. Lifetime triers were besides more likely to hold comorbid conditions. Eleven per centum of individuals with a lifetime history of self-destructive effort had three or more co-occurring upsets, as compared with merely 0.4 % of individuals with no history of life-time efforts. Controling for the effects of comorbid conditions suggests that while temper upsets may be independently associated with self-destructive results, comorbidity partially explains the association of anxiousness upsets and about to the full histories for the association of substance usage upsets with self-destructive results. The writers hence concluded that comorbidity is an of import factor in the association of mental and substance usage upsets with self-destructive behaviour in this environment. [ 19 ] Furthermore, Oladeji and Gureje, besides established a relationship between parental mental upsets and suicidal behavior in their progeny. The presence of panic upset and substance maltreatment in the parents were found to be associated with self-destructive ideation in the progeny, but merely parental panic upset was found to be related to suicidal efforts. The suggestion therefore, is that upsets of anxiousness and impulse control may play some function in the ascertained form of familial suicidal behaviors in their progeny. [ 20 ] Large graduated table surveies have besides been conducted among immature people in Nigeria. Omigbodun et al. , conducted a survey to set up the prevalence and associated psychosocial correlatives of self-destructive ideation and efforts among immature Nigerians, which revealed that, of the 1,429 young persons who were assessed, over 20 % reported self-destructive ideation and about 12 % reported that they had attempted suicide in the preceding twelvemonth. The survey reported the rates of both self-destructive ideation and efforts as care towards the upper bounds of acceptable rates for young persons. [ 21 ] The 2nd survey evaluated the presentation and psychosocial issues associated with preadolescent suicidal attempts utilizing the Ã¢â¬Ëhanging Ã¢â¬Ë method in Nigeria, and reported the being of the undermentioned mental wellness jobs: depression, behavior jobs, oppositional defiant upset and impulse control jobs. Other factors found to be associated with these self-destructive behavior included nerve-racking life events such as household break, physical maltreatment, and strong-arming at school. [ 22 ] The form of attempted self-destruction in the Nigerian military context has besides been studied by Okulate. He described the features of patients who attempted self-destruction and examined the differences between the self-destruction triers and a group of non-suicidal, affectional upset patients at the Department of Psychiatry, Military Hospital, Yaba, Nigeria. The survey revealed that self-destructive effort patients constituted 0.37 % of all admittances during a five-year period, and 60.8 % of them were under the age of 30 old ages. The Numberss of male and female patients were about the same. Depression and acute emphasis reaction were the normally associated diagnosings. While military dependants often ingested substances in their self-destruction efforts, military forces used more violent methods such as hanging and self-stabbing, but none used pieces. Compared with non self-destructive patients, suicide triers were more likely to be single and to hold a household history of m ental upset. [ 23 ] The highest hazards for passage from self-destructive ideation to planning, and from be aftering to attempted self-destruction normally occurs within the first twelvemonth of holding either the ideation or program. Other hazard factors for a life-time self-destructive effort include dysfunctional household backgrounds ; such as drawn-out separation from biological parents, high degrees of domestic struggles, childhood hardship, physical maltreatment and being nurtured by a adult female with a history of depression, anxiousness or self-destructive effort. [ 18 ] Refering the hazard and methods of suicide employed in Nigeria, new forms appear to hold emerged. HIV/AIDS has emerged as an extra hazard of self-destruction. [ 24,25 ] Other emerging hazards include the cyberspace and societal media every bit good as terrorist act and self-destruction bombardment which though foreigner to Nigerian society, appears to hold come to remain. Burning with kerosene [ 26 ] , cutting one Ã¢â¬Ës pharynx [ 27 ] and bring downing perforating abdominal stab hurt on oneself [ 25 ] are besides new but upseting methods of trying and finishing self-destruction in Nigeria.Prevention STRATEGIESSuicide bar is having increased attending in many developed states, but remains mostly ignored in developing states like Nigeria. There are no easy solutions to the job of self-destruction in developing states, given the serious deficiency of resources and low precedence given to mental wellness. There is besides the extra job of limited research on self-destruction in develo ping states, doing it imperative to trust on bar schemes that have been proven to work elsewhere but non in developing states. Furthermore, due to the unfavorable attitude towards self-destruction and mental unwellness, every bit good as the punitory legal demands for self-destructive behavior, self-destruction continues to be under reported in developing states, doing it hard to carry on research or develop and prove bar schemes. The World Health Organization has identified suicide as an progressively of import country of public wellness and has issued guidelines to member provinces in order to develop and implement coordinated and comprehensive national and international schemes. It has besides included self-destruction as one of the nine precedence conditions in the late launched mhGAP Intervention manual for scaling up services for mental and neurological conditions globally. The mhGAP manual is designed to function as a preparation manual for non-specialists in the designation and proviso of intercession for precedence mental wellness conditions, as a manner of cut downing the immense intervention spread in several parts of the universe. [ 28 ] There is grounds for the effectivity of two major schemes for forestalling self-destruction. [ 29 ] These include limitation of entree to lethal agencies and developing programmes for primary attention physicians to heighten early acknowledgment and intervention of depression with or without self-destructive ideation. Both attacks should be utile in our scene, but the latter attack to heighten the ability of general practicians, primary wellness attention workers and all other cells of wellness professionals to acknowledge and offer intercessions for depressive upsets is of important importance. Suicidal behaviors are besides strongly associated with the presence of mental upsets. In a underdeveloped state like Nigeria an of import measure towards suicide bar will be to cut down the stigma associated with mental wellness jobs. A reappraisal of the state Ã¢â¬Ës Mental Health Policy and Legislation, to comprehensively turn to the current challenges of mental upsets, and their complications, including self-destruction and self-destructive behavior is long delinquent. These attempts should besides take for the decriminalisation of self-destructive behaviors in our Torahs. These stairss will be meaningless, if our wellness records and describing systems are non reformed to include mortality rates and the certification of the causes of deceases. This should assist in determining the self-destruction rates in the state, and supply a platform for utile planning and the execution of suicide bar schemes. Focused research in this country should be promoted, particularly with regard to placing hazard factors, get bying mechanisms, protective factors and possible intercessions to minimise the calamity of self-destruction and self-destructive behavior in this environmentDecisionIn this work, the writers have demonstrated that self-destruction and suicidal behavior are a public wellness issue, merely like in other states of the universe. Like in other parts of the development universe merely a modest volume of research has been conducted on the topic in Nigeria, reflecting the deficiency of involvement of clinicians, research workers, policy shapers and, possibl y, research grant suppliers on the topic. For better self-destruction research which should ensue in better bar schemes, it is imperative that self-destruction be decriminalized. Cultural and spiritual factors forestalling people from describing and stigmatising self-destruction should besides be addressed through public enlightenment runs. An betterment in the mortality records, that besides specifies the causes of decease should be ensured at all degrees of attention. It might besides be helpful if the WHO could leverage on member states to roll up and supply one-year self-destruction rates in their legal powers. Finally, self-destruction is a public wellness job that requires a multidisciplinary attempt at question, bar and direction. The earlier this is realized in the Nigerian context, the better for our emerging mental wellness attention..